Academically Speaking (03) | 學術淺談
In the age of fake-news and alternative facts, it’s more important than ever for the LGBT+ community, especially those with access to empirically proven and scientifically sound data, to debunk, counter, and clarify myths, stereotypes and misinformation about LGBT+. This quarterly segment compiles and shares some in-depth evidence-based articles written by professional academics and leading authorities that are easy and fun to read.
HIV-positive men who are on treatment that makes the virus undetectable do not transmit HIV to their partners, according to new study from the Kirby Institute at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Australia. The study, conducted over a year and a half, recorded 17,000 acts of anal intercourse without condoms, none of which resulted in HIV transmission. In 12,000 of those instances, the HIV-negative partner was also not taking Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP), a drug proven to prevent the transmission of HIV.
據澳洲新南威爾斯大學 (University of New South Wales [UNSW]) 克爾比研究中心 [暫譯] (Kirby Institute) 最新研究指出，因接受治療使病毒不會被偵測到的男性愛滋帶原者，並不會將病毒傳播給其伴侶。此項執行超過一年半的研究，記錄超過一萬七千個未戴保險套進行肛門性交的案例 ─ 結果顯示皆無發現愛滋病毒傳播情形。再者，其中的一萬兩千個案例中，HIV 檢驗結果為陰性的伴侶，亦並未服用經藥物實驗證明可預防愛滋病毒傳播的 HIV 暴露前預防投藥 (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis)，英文簡寫 (PrEP)。
A post-World War II Army survey about the experience of units that received black infantry replacements after D-Day found 80 percent of white officers and 96 percent of white NCOs stated that black and white soldiers had gotten along very well or fairly well. Other studies have shown that the integration of women, gays and transgender people into the U.S. and other militaries around the world has not adversely affected cohesion, either.
Are same-sex romantic relationships more or less stable than different-sex relationships? And are changes in legislation and cultural attitudes towards same-sex relationships affecting their stability? Today, sexual minorities are beginning to enjoy some of the same privileges as straight couples, such as legal marriage and protection against employment and housing discrimination in many states. In light of these changes, a fresh look at same-sex relationships and their long-term stability makes sense.
同志伴侶是否較為異性的伴侶穩定呢？再者，立法上的變革及文化上對同志伴侶的觀念，是否也或多或少影響他們的穩定性？時至今日在美國許多州，因性向緣故在社會中處於弱勢的人們，終於能受到法律保障，開始享有與異性戀伴侶同等的權利 ─ 在婚姻、就業與購屋能不受人們歧視。由此可見，這些社會變遷再再驗證同志間穩定長期伴侶關係的可能性。
A paper published for the American Sociological Association in 2014 reviewed 10 years’ of scientific literature on child well-being in same-sex parented families in the US. The authors concluded there was clear consensus in scientific literature that children raised by same-sex couples fared as well as children raised by opposite-sex couples. This applied for a range of well-being measures, including: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. The authors noted that differences in child well-being were largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability.
2014 年美國社會學協會 (American Sociological Association) 刊登一份論文解析了共10年之多的文獻，內容談論到在美國同志伴侶雙親養育之孩童身心健康狀況。依據數年的研究文獻，筆者斷定，無論是異性或同性伴侶所養育的孩童，身心發展同樣健全。對於孩童福祉的評估，囊括範圍廣泛誠如：課業表現、認知發展、社交發展、心智健康、青少年早期性行為及藥物濫用等層面。筆者也指出，孩童的福祉差異也可歸因於雙親的社會經濟條件及家庭和諧等因素。
Two new recent studies paint slightly different, though not completely incompatible, pictures of current LGBT financial well-being in the US. At Harvard Business Review, Vanderbilt economics professor Kitt Carpenter, highlighted a study he co-authored, which examined National Health Interview Survey data and found, “for the first time in the literature,” that gay men were earning “significantly more than comparable heterosexual men” by about 10 percent. Forbes recently featured a 2016/2017 survey on LGBT earning by the financial services company Prudential, which found, as the Forbes contributors summarized, that “heterosexual males indicate the highest incomes, followed by gay men, heterosexual women and then lesbian women.”
最近刊登的兩份不同的報告（彼此並非完全相互矛盾），探討美國社會 LGBTQ+ 社群的薪資條件。在一份哈佛大學研究中，范德比大學 (Vanderbilt) 經濟學教授 Kitt Carpenter 在一篇檢視國民健康訪問調查的資料庫，他共同撰寫的著作中特別提到一份報告，指出「第一次有文獻中記錄」男同志所得「超過大部分異性戀男性」有 10 % 之多。美國富比士雜誌最近也刊出保德信金融集團 (Prudential) 於 2016~2017 年調查 LGBTQ+ 群體薪資所得的報告，內容指出富比世雜誌相關消息人士提出一個結論：「異性戀男性所得最高，其次為男同志，之後分別為異性戀女性及女同志」。
The latest research on youth who identify as LGBTQ provides some key insights into what we know and, and perhaps more importantly what we think we know but don’t actually know about LGBTQ youth. Some of the insights include: LGBTQ youth are extremely diverse, many estimates of LGBTQ youth risk are probably wrong, and Gay-Straight Alliances vary considerably and are of unknown effectiveness.
(翻譯： Andrew Wang ；編輯：Zac T. and Lili W.)